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Economic security from a political perspective - reforms outside the oil sector DinarDailyUpdates?bg=330099&fg=FFFFFF&anim=1

Economic security from a political perspective - reforms outside the oil sector

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Economic security from a political perspective - reforms outside the oil sector Empty Economic security from a political perspective - reforms outside the oil sector

Post by claud39 on Sat Jun 20, 2020 11:03 am

Economic security from a political perspective - reforms outside the oil sector




20/06/2020



Economic security from a political perspective - reforms outside the oil sector 21552









Ali Abdel-Kadhim Daadouch * 


Introduction

The concept of security has moved from merely being a purely military issue to being a comprehensive societal issue related to the extent of the ability of states and societies to implement development plans (economic, social, political and cultural), and strengthened their own construction, and in this context says former US Defense Secretary Robert McNamara and former President of the World Bank In his book entitled (The Essence of Security) "Security is not military equipment if it includes it, not military power and if it includes it, and not military activity, even if it includes it. Because security is development, without development there is no security, and countries that do not grow cannot Simply stay safe.As a result of this shift in the international concept of national or national security on the one hand, and as a result of the ever increasing and renewable economic challenges facing the world today as well as the Corona Virus pandemic, on the other hand, most thinkers and strategic experts in the world have tended to consider the issue of economic security as a major player in Directing policies, programs and strategic plans internally or with the rest of the world.

First: the concept of economic security

    The United Nations defined the concept of economic security as "having one's physical means to live a stable and fulfilling life", while the International Committee of the Red Cross has defined it as "a situation in which individuals, families or local communities can meet their necessary (mandatory) needs in a manner Sustainable who respect their dignity "For others who are interested in this concept, it is simply to have enough cash to satisfy their basic needs, (such as food, adequate shelter, basic health care and education), this is on an individual or narrow level, but economic security science is not limited to this narrow concept, so this science can Addressing a very wide range of different issues, such as monitoring financial flows and foreign investments, protecting national or emerging industries, achieving food security and self-sufficiency in many and varied fields, as well as fighting industrial and commercial espionage and fighting cyber crime.

Second: The components of economic security Economic security
   consists of several elements that include all levels (political, economic, social, etc.), but in summary that the most important elements of economic security are: -

1- Exploiting wealth and natural resources

   There is no doubt that the lack of exploitation of wealth and natural resources, and the loss of justice in distributing its revenues to society, leads to weakening the economic situation of the country, and this indicates a decline in its strategic, political and economic capabilities, and there are countries that have not exploited their wealth despite their urgent need, as there are other countries that have exploited some Its wealth, but it was not able to achieve justice in appropriately distributing revenues and incomes among members of society, which led to high unemployment rates, poverty rates and low living standards. The United Nations report for 2009 indicated that oil wealth (imaginary) among some Arab countries, especially the Gulf countries It gives a misleading picture of the economic conditions of these countries, because it conceals the structural weaknesses in many Arab economies, and the resulting destabilization of economic security for countries and citizens alike, in addition to these misleading numbers and images will enhance the lack of transparency in declaring the amount of wealth thatObtained by the princes and kings of these rentier states.   

2- Takaful security policy (social insurance)

    This is the policy that aims to provide social protection for workers in state and community institutions (the public and private sectors) through a system of deduction of part of the employees salaries and depositing them in a specific fund according to known laws and regulations, to give them any in the form of compensation in cases of leaving work or dismissing from service Or reaching retirement age, disability, sickness or death, and this system is known as (social insurance) or after service benefits, which is mainly based on harnessing solidarity operations among the workers sector to provide protection and social security to them, and among the forms of social insurance what is known (security) Health Takaful) which is a takaful system between citizens and the state, where the joint worker pays - according to his income - a limited monthly contribution so that he and his family members enjoy integrated medical services, regardless of the size of the family and the size of the services required, which include free examination and examination, and the drug at a nominal cost.

3- Employment policy (work) and fighting poverty

    The work is an important and essential source in satisfying the necessary needs of the human being and transforming the individual from a state of poverty, hunger and fear, to a state of social and economic stability, as it is considered the means and an effective input in achieving economic power and security in the country, and therefore looks at the society in which high rates of unemployment and inactive people prevail Economically as a poor, unproductive, or underdeveloped or delayed society, which establishes a state of social instability among members of society. As for the high rates of economically active population, it reflects stability in the economic situation of the country concerned, and reflects the extent of its ability to achieve its economic security, and therefore is reflected on Combating poverty, which is one of the most important policies that economic security seeks to achieve, as poverty represents the greatest danger to contemporary societies, as increasing the poor in society means increasing diseases, malnutrition, and many crimes and thefts, which causes political instabilityEconomic and security, therefore, anti-poverty projects and their efficiency in intervention are seen as an essential factor in achieving economic security, but rather overall security in society.

4- Social Policies - Protection and  

    Care Multiple social care policies that target social development and raise the living standards of families and communities, protect vulnerable segments, and fight poverty and others, constitute an important dimension of achieving economic security, and these policies include in particular programs and projects with microfinance, and programs Productive families, employment of graduates, youth stability projects, and student welfare, as well as projects to achieve economic security for women, so the social welfare concept must be expanded to include the needs of different groups in society, and activate social and economic intervention programs that achieve a large social return so that in return the country can obtain Competencies in all economic, political and social aspects, in a situation similar to what the father does in caring for his children until the age of the ability to rely on himself to provide and provide services for himself and society as a whole.

5- Health Security Policies - Prevention and Treatment 

    Health security means providing the means of prevention and treatment of diseases and epidemics that afflict the country, and health is closely related to achieving economic security for the community. A society that is free of diseases enjoys its people with activity and strength that enables them to work and produce and achieve appropriate economic growth rates, while the opposite occurs in the case of a society that It is dominated by diseases and epidemics, so countries are trying to combat dangerous diseases, such as (AIDS, swine flu, birds, and finally the Coronavirus epidemic), and even animal diseases (Rift Valley Fever, mad cow disease, etc.) to protect their economy and their citizens from the risk of infection, as it is based Health security mainly provides primary health care programs, health insurance services to citizens, the provision of life-saving drugs and vaccines, the development and expansion of health institutions such as hospitals, health centers, health counseling and education centers, as well as giving paramount importance to the health of vulnerable groupsSuch as children, women, the disabled, the elderly ... etc.

Third: Economic security in Iraq - untapped financial resources

    After several months have passed since the double crisis that struck the world, which is the outbreak of the Corona virus and the collapse of crude oil prices in global markets, which greatly affected the economies of the whole world, and most of the major capitalist countries could not avoid human and economic losses. They varied from one country to another according to the commitment and cultural awareness in society.

 For example, the death toll in Italy increased dramatically while New Zealand managed to defeat the epidemic by strictly observing the instructions that the government directed to it. As for the economic aspect, the whole world was affected, and even the major industrial countries did not deliver from Losses on this side, trade and transport methods in all its forms stopped, and companies laid off most of their workers. As for rentier countries like Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, for example, after the collapse of oil prices, I went to (their sovereign funds) to help the necessary things in the public sector such as salaries and wagesFor its employees. 

   As for Iraq, it has been exposed in all its directions (political, economic and social). On the political side, confusion and incompatibility between the political process comrades in choosing a prime minister more than once led to a near-general weakness in all public utilities. As for economically, Iraq’s reliance on a single resource to finance the budget The public, which is the oil whose prices have collapsed, the lack of a sovereign fund for it, and the corruption that is rampant in most public circles and institutions, including border crossings, has led to confusion in taking decisions that negatively affected the social reality in the country, so the decision to reduce salaries for middle and low income groups led to Great fear for most of these families, which depend entirely on this salary, as it is - that is, salaries and wages - a source to pay the rent of the house and the electricity and water bill and meet the source of the food and the rest of the things necessary for decent living, and that Iraq has many resources outside the oil and gas sector, such as tourism And taxesCustoms and real estate properties owned by the state and others, but we will focus our reform proposals in practice on suppliers outside the oil and natural gas sector, which are important resources and provide the general budget in most of the world countries, including Iraq, with approximately (15-25%) of the total public revenue, as follows: -  

 
1- Border ports (customs tax) practically, the reform of this important sector will provide the public budget with approximately 10% of the total public revenue in the country, and that the reform process is carried out by restructuring the border ports by investing them and activating them economically and commercially, as building Integrated border outlets, services for travel and trade, and building modern and advanced halls for travelers that contain all services from (chain of restaurants to small parking lots and pregnancy to international communication services and other related services), as well as building (green) and free industrial areas.

    As the mechanism of this investment process is carried out through one of the investment methods concerned with this BOT or through PPP partnership, in the sense of the Ministry of Interior and the investing companies while ensuring the existence of an accounting security system and strict management that limits the financial and administrative corruption that prevails in the border outlets, and this The investment process will revitalize the economic environment of the country by encouraging some local industries in a way that leads to the operation of local factories and labor. This is on the one hand, and it will relieve the state of the burdens of managing border ports and limiting its role and tasks in managing passports and customs, then those border ports will be profitable in the form of Bigger than before.

 2- The establishment of military banks: General Bashir Al-Wendi stated in his book (Security. Infrastructures and Supporting Controls, 2016) that it is possible to establish military banks for the Ministries of Defense and Interior, which is what inspired me to search for such an issue with the rest of the neighboring countries, especially the rentier countries, in Iran there are more Of the 5 banks for army and police formations that include more than 24 million individuals and were merged in 2019 under the Bank (Sepah) to become the largest bank in Iran with a strength of 1200 branches distributed throughout the country, either in Jordan, which has a military credit fund that provides all Banking facilities and services for the military, and in Egypt that some of the blocked sources from circulating in Egypt indicate that the army has established its own bank and has entered into the economic sectors, and in a study prepared by the Carnegie Middle East Center in 2014 he said that the army has acquired a lot of investment, which stimulated economic development in the country .

    From this standpoint, the process of establishing two banks for the army and the police distributed across all classes and formations (the Anti-Terrorism and Intelligence Agency, the National Security and the Popular Mobilization and others) is an important economic and investment opportunity for the country, especially since these two ministries include more than two million individuals, as well as the possibility of including members of the family of the affiliate or The military (optionally). Undoubtedly, in the event the bank is opened, it will monopolize all the accounts of the affiliates in the army and the police, by opening accounts for them to pay their salaries and provide common banking services in all other banks. A dollar to save about (200) million dollars in individual deposits for the bank monthly, with the budgets of the two ministries that contain huge amounts of millions of dollars, as well as the bankers involved in their services for retired military personnel and the salaries of martyrs, and the internal and defense martyrs funds are added to it, which means services providedSmall business loans to affiliated families, housing loans, marriage loans and other banking services.

    As for the employees working in these banks, they are the concerned of the associate and graduates of the departments of the College of Administration and Economics (such as the Department of Finance, Banking, Economics, Accounting and Management) and of the officers and ranks of military accounts in addition to administrative and financial banking expertise in the contract system. It affects any authority of safe ministers. Such a project would be an important transition in the service of the country in general and the security establishment in particular, as it would end a lot of administrative and financial corruption, and the termination of aliens and people with dual salaries in the security forces, as well as being a project supporting the economic potentials that drive development forward in the country.



* Writer and economic researcher 







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claud39
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