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[size=32]Iraq 2019 ... began cautiously optimistic and ended in an open political crisis[/size]
31 Minutes Ago
31 Minutes Ago
Contrary to the cautious hopes that were held at the beginning of 2019 of the rise of a political figure described as "calm and moderate", at the top of the pyramid of power in Baghdad, who is the resigned Prime Minister Adel Abdul Mahdi, the scene of the country at the beginning of the new year 2020 appears very mysterious and foggy, after the severe shock The Iraqi protests that started in the beginning of October caused by all political, social and economic levels.
Until the first quarter of 2019, the government of Adel Abdul Mahdi did not face major challenges that would enable monitors to judge its performance, and its ability to succeed in managing the country that has just emerged from a three-year war against ISIS, and to address current problems and failures.
However, the incident of the sinking of the "ferry" in Mosul in March, which caused the death of more than 120 citizens, and Abdul Mahdi asked the parliament to fire the Nineveh governorate, Nawfal Al-Akoub, and hold him responsible for what happened, he sent a positive message about the positive role that Abd can play Mahdi in leading the country to safety.
However, the features of that performance seemed more clear after the end of the second quarter of the year, and gradually escalated, the severity of criticism and doubts that cast doubt on the performance of the government and its president. Although it inherited catastrophic problems for about a decade and a half, the citizens did not see a difference or improvement in their economic conditions, despite the huge financial budget (88).
With the intensification of the American-Iranian conflict, and the escalation of economic sanctions on Tehran, the Baghdad government fell between the jaws of that fierce conflict, and it often appeared confused between the long-term strategic partnership relations with the United States, and what is imposed by the neighborly relations and the declared alliance of some of the forces of the political process with Iran .
With the escalation of attacks by the Drones against many locations of the “Popular Mobilization” camps in Baghdad and more than one governorate, it became clear that Iraq and its sovereignty are at the heart of the storm of the Iranian-American conflict, as it turned out that the government is completely impotent, both at the level of deterring armed factions Accused of storing Iranian weapons within the territory of its country, and thus not giving an excuse to Israel or others in violating national sovereignty, or at the level of the country's military ability to deter any external aggression. And that deficit will be one of the factors fueling national feelings of anger and mass demonstrations to topple the regime in October.
In the face of urgent questions raised by the Iraqi street about the continuous violations of the country's sovereignty, Prime Minister Adel Abdul Mahdi, silent, for several weeks, before he publicly accused Israel of the end of September, of being behind these attacks, but did not reveal its causes and motives, in exchange for speculation A locality indicates an unmistakable battle between Israel and the United States, on the one hand, and Iran and its allies on the other hand, on Iraqi soil.
Although Abdul-Mahdi issued a bureau order during that period to control the rhythm of the "Popular Mobilization" committee, there were not enough indications that the armed factions had risen above the government and the Iraqi state. And it looked locally at the "quiet and moderate" Prime Minister who came up with an ambiguous deal between the "Saeron" alliances, which is supported by Muqtada Al-Sadr, and the "Al-Fateh" coalition, which includes most of the "mass" forces allied to Iran, as the character under the influence of "Al-Fath" and his men.
In mid-September, the Iraqi Prime Minister sought to reassure Iraqis about their economic future, through two visits he made to Saudi Arabia and China to sign multiple agreements to advance the country's economic and investment reality.
However, two incidents at the end of the month were enough to reduce the prime minister’s popularity to unprecedented levels, and pave the way for the subsequent popular anger that exploded in the form of demonstrations and sit-ins that included the capital Baghdad and most of the southern and eastern provinces of the Shiite majority (Najaf, Karbala, Maysan, Wasit, Babil, Basra , Dhi Qar, Diwaniyah, Muthanna).
On September 25, riot police launched a violent hot-water assault to break up a demonstration of higher-education women and men near the government headquarters in the Alawi area, central Baghdad, which sparked a massive popular outrage.
Two days later, the Prime Minister ordered the removal of the counter-terrorism chief, Staff General Abdel-Wahab Al-Saadi, and his transfer to the command of the Ministry of Defense, for unexplained reasons, which was met with widespread public disapproval.
The masses did not wait long to announce their rejection and protest against the path chosen by the Abdul Mahdi government, and the first vanguards of protesters emerged within four days of these incidents.
On the first of October, which happened about a year after Abdul-Mahdi took over as prime minister, demonstrations began in Baghdad and more than one governorate, and excessive force was committed by the security forces with the demonstrators since the first day, when at least 10 people were killed and injured.
Dozens to make matters more complicated, and reveal to the citizens the other side of the "calm and moderate" Prime Minister. The demonstrations and clashes with the security forces continued for a few days, and then stopped to coincide with the visit of the religious "forty", to renew its launch, and at a more escalating pace in the 25 of the same month.
Just as the protesters appeared in their new appearance, more determined to bring about the required change that has increased its ceiling, to include displacing the whole system and not being satisfied with some of the demands of formal reform, the authorities and the Prime Minister demonstrated a similar determination to suppress the demonstrators strongly.
Not only did the authorities suppress the demonstrators with live bullets and tear gas, and they cut off the Internet for about two weeks, along with a crackdown and closure campaign against journalists, satellite channels and various media outlets that were active in covering the protests, but also prevented health authorities from providing any information about the numbers of the wounded and dead.
Despite the decisions and measures taken by the government to absorb the anger of citizens, such as launching a campaign of appointments, jobs, and loans, and other decisions taken by Parliament related to reducing the privileges of senior officials, and voting on a new election law, these measures were not heard by the crowd of protesters, and the matter turned into Sit-ins, road-strikes, and general strikes, which have been met with excessive use of force by the authorities, have accused armed factions loyal to Iran of carrying out these actions, and Iraqi Defense Minister Najah al-Shammari, in mid-November, spoke of a "third party" behind the killing and repression of the demonstrators.
Those factions held, along with military leaders, the responsibility for the metaphors committed in Dhi Qar Governorate in early December and the massacre of Al-Khilani and Al-Sanak neighborhoods in Baghdad in the middle of the month, knowing that the death toll of the demonstrations was approximately 500, and the number of wounded (as of the date of this writing) The report) 20 thousand, including a few members of the security forces.
Among the many reasons that led people to demonstrate, during the "October Uprising," popular anger over Iranian influence and domination of the political decision in Iraq and Iran's support for armed groups and factions that did not respect the population, so the demonstrators deliberately attacked and burned the Iranian consulate in Karbala governorate in early November, And they carried out a similar burning operation, at the end of the same month, for the other Iranian consulate in Najaf, the stronghold of the supreme religious authority, and the last burning process was repeated twice within a few days.
With speeches in support of the protests, critical of the authorities launched by the religious authority in Najaf, and with the popular and international pressure faced by the prime minister accused of submitting to the authority of militias and armed factions allied to Iran, on December 1, Abdul-Mahdi was forced to resign to the parliament, which Before her turn.
And until the middle of the month, Barham Saleh, before the president of the republic, chose to choose a new candidate to head the government, which many observers view with skepticism, especially since the movement groups do not trust the majority of the faces of the political process after 2003.
Despite the high hopes that the “Tishreen Revolution Youth” adheres to in seeing a safe and stable country at the beginning of the new year, many analysts and observers of local affairs are aware of the size of the difficulties and dangers in the country’s path before emerging from its current crisis.Middle east
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