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ARAB MONETARY FUND ISSUES THIRD ISSUE OF "POLICY BRIEF" SERIES ON "TAX JUSTICE" DinarDailyUpdates?bg=330099&fg=FFFFFF&anim=1

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ARAB MONETARY FUND ISSUES THIRD ISSUE OF "POLICY BRIEF" SERIES ON "TAX JUSTICE"

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ARAB MONETARY FUND ISSUES THIRD ISSUE OF "POLICY BRIEF" SERIES ON "TAX JUSTICE" Empty ARAB MONETARY FUND ISSUES THIRD ISSUE OF "POLICY BRIEF" SERIES ON "TAX JUSTICE"

Post by claud39 on Mon Jun 10, 2019 7:36 am

ARAB MONETARY FUND ISSUES THIRD ISSUE OF "POLICY BRIEF" SERIES ON "TAX JUSTICE"
2019-06-10



ARAB MONETARY FUND ISSUES THIRD ISSUE OF "POLICY BRIEF" SERIES ON "TAX JUSTICE" Logo-ar










Arab Monetary Fund


The third issue of the "Policy Brief" series on "Tax Justice "


Tax justice requires that taxpayers contribute a fair share of the financing of public expenditures, and achieve them subject to the fair distribution of the tax burden


The shift towards tax justice requires more reliance on direct taxes represented


 In both income and corporate taxes


The trend of a number of Arab countries to focus on reforms to achieve tax justice and increase the efficiency of tax systems during the years 2019 and 2020


 

As part of its interest in developing its research activities, the Arab Monetary Fund launched a new periodic research series entitled " Policy Brief ", which aims to support the decision-making process in the Arab countries by providing brief research publications that address the most important priorities and topics of interest to member countries with recommendations to policy makers. 
The third issue of this series deals with the theme " [url=https://www.amf.org.ae/sites/default/files/%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B9%D8%AF%D8%AF %D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AB%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AB - %D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B9%D8%AF%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A9 %D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B6%D8%B1%D9%8A%D8%A8%D9%8A%D8%A9.pdf]Tax justice[/url]"He pointed out that the concept of tax justice is meant" the contribution of taxpayers to a fair share in the financing of public expenditure "and" taking into account the fairness of the distribution of the tax burden between financiers. "There are two types of tax justice based on two basic principles: , 2. The principle of the ability to pay According to the principle of utility, the fairness of the tax system is the contribution of each taxable financier to the total proceeds of taxes in accordance with the public services and benefits provided by the State. Tax, the first concept In horizontal tax justice, which means "taxpayers who are equal in their ability to pay the same tax burden"; the second type is vertical tax justice, which means "different and different treatment of taxpayers according to the ability of each of them to bear the tax burden"Progressive taxes ) in accordance with the principle of capacity to pay.
A shift towards the fairness of tax systems generally requires more reliance on direct taxes, represented by income taxes and corporations, in accordance with progressive tax regimes according to income and wealth levels compared with indirect taxes charged by taxpayers without discrimination in accordance with their ability to bear the tax burden. The concept of transition to tax justice also extends to tax exemptions, taking into account the personal and family burdens borne by financiers, as well as the differentiation in tax rates depending on the type of income and activity. This means that the concept of tax justice in modern finance has expanded beyond the concept In the context of the traditional role of public finance .The process of measuring tax justice is difficult and complicated due to a number of reasons, including the overlap between the principle of utility and the principle of capacity to pay, as well as the difference in the basis of measurement and whether the comparison is based solely on the tax burden and income level, . On the other hand, attempts to measure vertical tax justice by looking only at the extent to which the tax system is escalating are also facing a number of challenges. For example, you can tax justice be achieved even in the case of a relative tax system ( Proportionate ) or even retrogressive ( Regressive ), if the use of tax revenues to support families and low - income groups , including helping to achieve fairness of the tax system as is the case in some States such as New Zealand.
The third issue of the Arab Monetary Fund's policy brief explained that the economic conditions experienced by the Arab countries during the past years necessitated a greater focus on tax reform in order to increase tax revenues within the framework of the extensive financial reform programs implemented to achieve financial discipline and financial sustainability. The reforms focused on diversifying sources of revenue in the Arab oil-exporting countries, expanding the tax base and raising the efficiency of tax collection, as well as achieving justice and tax efficiency in Arab countries importing oil . The importance of these reforms comes in the context of the need to boost public revenues in the Arab countries, especially in the light of the decline in the proceeds of oil revenues beginning in 2014, and the consequent need for more stable tax resources to finance public spending, as well as the need to raise the tax burden in Arab countries (measured by tax revenues to GDP in the Arab countries), particularly in view of the low tax burden of 8.3 per cent in 2018, compared with the global average of 14 per cent, which calls for a focus on the development of the tax proceeds but in a supportive framework for the Social . 
With regard to the fair distribution of the tax burden at the level of Arab countries as a group, it is noted from the structure of tax revenues for 2018 that the improvement in levels of tax justice in the Arab countries according to the latest data to reflect the impact of recent financial reforms. In this context, the relative importance of direct taxes on income and profits increased to account for about 40 percent of the total tax revenues in Arab countries as a group, compared to only about 27 percent in 2014, while the relative importance of indirect taxes with less justice Tax, where sales of goods and services are levied without distinction between taxpayers by income level, where they are reduced to 60 per cent of the total tax revenue structure in 2018 compared to 73 per cent in 2014.
In this context, the summary referred to the experiences of some Arab countries and the reforms being implemented during the 2019-2020 horizon to achieve tax justice. In Jordan , the new Income Tax Law, which comes to realize the principle of tax justice and social solidarity, was adopted, no additional taxes were imposed on the poor and low-income groups, and the principle of progressive social justice was adhered to. In Tunisia , the government has embarked on reforms to ensure fiscal justice under the IMF-supported economic reform program. In this context, a comprehensive and profound reform of the tax system has been introduced to establish a simplified, more efficient, more efficient tax system. In Sudan, Reforms included in the fiscal year 2019 include a number of actions on the revenue side aimed at increasing public revenues by 41 per cent through the adoption of a number of policies and measures, including: continuing tax reform efforts to increase efficiency and fiscal justice by addressing tax distortions, The integration of the informal sector into the formal umbrella, the equitable distribution of the tax burden and the reduction of tax evasion rates.
In Algeria , the tax reform strategy seeks to achieve equitable distribution of the tax burden on citizens, so that all taxpayers are obliged to pay the tax burden according to their financial capabilities. Accordingly, the Finance Act of 2018 and 2019 included measures to reduce tax evasion and disclosure of wealth. In Palestine , the fiscal reforms of 2019 and 2020 focused on the role of public finance in promoting social spending, supporting inclusive and sustainable growth, and on fiscal justice reforms by reducing the tax burden on low-income people, maintaining the progressive tax system, Increasing the level of social benefits and more investment in infrastructure and spending on education and health projects . In Egypt, The government was concerned with implementing many reforms aimed at achieving tax justice, including the government's amendment of the Income Tax Law, whereby tax deduction was granted to low income groups. In addition, in order to expand the tax base and ease the tax burden, Tax and stimulate the informal sector to join the formal sector .  While Morocco is working to create a balance in the structure of tax revenues, in addition to rationalization of tax exemptions and the imposition of progressive taxes on the agricultural sector, as well as combating evasion and the integration of the informal sector to achieve more tax justice.
In this context, the third issue of the policy brief referred to some of the policy implications of pursuing further fiscal justice in the Arab countries, the most important of which are :


  • The importance of expanding the tax base : The limited tax base and the presence of many economic activities and categories outside the tax base greatly affect the ability of the Arab countries to achieve tax justice, resulting in a limited number of financiers carrying the full tax burden necessary to finance public expenditure. Accordingly, the achievement of tax justice necessitates adopting policies to expand the tax base through: the integration of activities in the informal sector, which in some Arab countries accounts for about 60 per cent of GDP to the formal economy, and the continuous review of tax exemption structures in line with Economic priorities of the state, and the subject of electronic sales of taxes, especially in the presence of some Arab countries among the top ten developing countries in terms of e-commerce operations.




  • Further reforms of horizontal fiscal justice: In the Arab countries, there is a need for further reforms aimed at achieving horizontal tax justice, including the inclusion of non-wage income in the tax base where best practices indicate that all other income sources other than wages and salaries should be taxed With a simple rate that takes into account the rates of inflation and developments in real interest rates so that the tax does not cause the erosion of wealth (tax base) is evaded or avoided, in addition to the need to review the limits of tax exemption in line with the average per capita output and For global comparisons and review of the limits of exemption in line with purchasing power, as well as the imposition of taxes on property, especially real estate assets, allowing the expansion of the tax base and the exemption of owners of low-income property of the tax.




  • Increasing tax rates to ensure vertical tax justice: Most Arab countries adopt a system of escalation of classes, which means the imposition of tax rates vary according to the gradual transition to income levels, which means equal treatment of tax among financiers at the beginning and end of the income layer means that a slight increase in income levels may bear Funded tax burden, which does not achieve tax justice. Thus, the adoption of a slide-up approach (splitting the tax base into segments that are subject to a certain rate and increasing the rate with a move to a higher segment) would contribute to avoiding a sudden shift in the tax rate from one layer to another, Increases in layers.




  • The importance of adopting a simplified system for small and medium-sized enterprises: Given the importance of small and medium enterprises (SMEs), which comprise between 90-99% of projects in the formal sector in Arab countries, it is important to adopt simplified tax systems on this type of projects, To oblige these projects to submit tax returns, thereby increasing tax revenues and reducing the burden on financiers.




  • Avoidance of tax evasion: Considerations of the promotion of tax justice require the efforts of Arab governments to reduce levels of tax evasion and increase the efficiency of tax collection through a number of mechanisms, including the use of information systems, the importance of non-traditional approach to tax inspection to monitor non-taxable resources, . In this regard, one study published by the Arab Monetary Fund recently pointed out that raising the efficiency of tax collection to the level of 90 per cent to provide the Arab States annually resources estimated at 122 billion dollars annually, which covers 15 percent of public spending and enable governments to implement Further reforms aimed at tax justice.




  • Paying attention to public expenditure in support of social justice: Zakah also relies on the fairness of the distribution of public spending and directing an important part of it to social justice, reducing class disparities and inequality in income distribution. Reforms aimed at strengthening social spending, especially spending on the education, health and capital sectors that support economic growth and poverty reduction, will contribute to fiscal justice.



[url=https://www.amf.org.ae/sites/default/files/%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B9%D8%AF%D8%AF %D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AB%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AB - %D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B9%D8%AF%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A9 %D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B6%D8%B1%D9%8A%D8%A8%D9%8A%D8%A9.pdf]Policy Brief on Tax Justice[/url]




[url=https://www.amf.org.ae/sites/default/files/%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B9%D8%AF%D8%AF %D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AB%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AB - %D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B9%D8%AF%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A9 %D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B6%D8%B1%D9%8A%D8%A8%D9%8A%D8%A9.pdf]https://www.amf.org.ae/sites/default/files/%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B9%D8%AF%D8%AF%20%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AB%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AB%20-%20%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B9%D8%AF%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A9%20%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B6%D8%B1%D9%8A%D8%A8%D9%8A%D8%A9.pdf[/url]




https://www.amf.org.ae/ar/content/%D8%B5%D9%86%D9%80%D9%80%D9%80%D9%80%D8%AF%D9%88%D9%82-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%86%D9%82%D8%AF-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B9%D8%B1%D8%A8%D9%8A-%D9%8A%D8%B5%D9%80%D9%80%D9%80%D9%80%D8%AF%D8%B1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B9%D8%AF%D8%AF-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AB%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AB-%D9%85%D9%86-%D8%B3%D9%84%D8%B3%D9%84%D8%A9-%D9%85%D9%88%D8%AC%D8%B2-%D8%B3%D9%8A%D8%A7%D8%B3%D8%A7%D8%AA-%D8%AD%D9%88%D9%84-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B9%D8%AF%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B6%D8%B1%D9%8A%D8%A8%D9%8A%D8%A9-0
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ARAB MONETARY FUND ISSUES THIRD ISSUE OF "POLICY BRIEF" SERIES ON "TAX JUSTICE" Empty Arab Monetary Fund launches a "policy brief"

Post by claud39 on Thu Jun 13, 2019 9:36 am

[size=36][rtl]Arab Monetary Fund launches a "policy brief"[/rtl][/size]




Thursday 13 June 2019



ARAB MONETARY FUND ISSUES THIRD ISSUE OF "POLICY BRIEF" SERIES ON "TAX JUSTICE" Alsabaah-13966






Baghdad / follow-up
 
 

The Arab Monetary Fund has launched a new periodic research series entitled "Policy Brief" aimed at supporting the decision-making process in the Arab countries by providing brief research publications that address the most important priorities and topics of interest to Member States,
 Policies. According to a publication on the website of the Arab Monetary Fund, Al-Sabah, the third issue dealt with the issue of "tax justice." He pointed out that the concept of tax justice is meant to mean "the contribution of taxpayers to a fair share in the financing of public expenditures" In the distribution of the tax burden between financiers, "explaining the existence of two types of tax justice based on two basic principles are the principle of utility, and the principle of ability to
 paying off.
"The economic conditions experienced by the Arab countries during the past years called for more emphasis on tax reform in order to increase the tax revenues within the framework of the large-scale financial reform programs implemented to achieve fiscal discipline and sustainability
 Finance ". 
"The reforms focused on diversifying sources of revenue in Arab oil-exporting countries, expanding the tax base and raising the efficiency of tax collection, as well as achieving justice and tax efficiency in imported Arab countries.
 Oil ".
"The importance of reforms comes in the context of the need to boost public revenues in the Arab countries, especially in the light of the decline in the proceeds of oil revenues beginning in 2014, and the consequent need for more stable tax resources to finance public spending, as well as the need to raise the level of tax burden In the Arab countries (measured by the percentage of tax revenues to GDP in the Arab countries), especially in light of the low tax burden to 8.3 percent in 2018, compared with the global average of 14 percent, which calls for focusing on the development of the tax proceeds but in a supportive framework for justice. 
Social".  
The relative importance of direct taxes on income and profits rose to account for about 40 percent of the total tax revenues in the Arab countries as a group, compared to only 27 percent in 2014, while the relative importance of indirect taxes with less tax justice was reduced as they imposed on sales of goods And services without distinction between taxpayers according to the level of income, which decreased to account for 60 percent of the total structure of tax revenues in 2018 compared to about 73 percent in 
2014.
The limited tax base and the presence of many economic activities and categories outside the tax base greatly affect the ability of Arab countries to achieve fiscal justice, resulting in a limited number of financiers bearing the full tax burden needed to finance spending.
 General.






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