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Tourism and Economic Development
Wednesday 24 January 2019
Tourism and Economic Development
Wednesday 24 January 2019
Brief Study Paper: Dr. Raouf Mohammed Ali Al Ansari
Tourism in the developed countries is a major source of economic development. Therefore, we find huge investments in the tourism sector, as in Italy, Spain, Greece, Mexico, Turkey and other countries that have made significant progress in this field.
We briefly explain the most important advantages that illustrate the role of tourism in economic development:
• Many countries rely on tourism as an important source of national income. These countries have access to large annual incomes from the tourism sector, as in the United States, Spain, Italy, Greece, Austria, Switzerland, France, England, Turkey and other countries. Tourism income is a major factor in the economies of tourism countries. It enhances the balance of payments and is a great source of employment opportunities for citizens, which supports their social and living standards. The importance of tourism has become closely linked to economic development after it was an abstract science taught in universities and institutes. Tourism is one of the main elements of economic activity in the tourist countries. The international organizations, such as the World Bank and UNESCO, which consider tourism as a key factor for interculturalization, have been interested in tourism.
• As an example of the importance of tourism in the business sector, according to World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC), the travel and tourism industry has contributed to the creation of more than one million jobs a month directly or indirectly throughout the world during the last century. In recent years, employment opportunities in the tourism and travel industry have doubled in most countries.
• Tourism is an important source of foreign currency acquisition, which tourists spend on goods and services from these currencies. It is not denied that hard currencies, especially in developing countries such as Egypt, Tunisia and Morocco, enable the country to import goods and services and support the local currency, And the cost of living.
• The world is moving rapidly to employ modern technologies in all aspects of tourism work whether in:
Preparation and dissemination of tourist information.
Arranging and implementing tourism programs.
Preparing and qualifying tourist cadres.
Design and construction of hotel and leisure facilities for tourists.
Tourism and sustainable development
Sustainable development is sustainable and sustainable economic and social development without damage to the quality of natural resources used in human activities and dependent on the development process.
Thus, the tourism sector is considered one of the additional sectors active alongside other economic sectors as it helps the economic and social growth of the country.
Many countries, especially those aiming at achieving sustainable development, seek to develop and revitalize the tourism sector for its economic and social development. Tourism policies are based not only on economic and technological considerations, but also the conservation of the environment and the needs of the host population in general and those working in the tourism field in particular. Tourism that meets these requirements is alternative tourism or tourism compatible and tourism.
In late 1997, the World Tourism Organization (WTO) called for a conference of tourism ministers from Asia and the Pacific on tourism and the environment. The conference covered a wide range of technical topics related to sustainable tourism. He pointed out that there is a sense and urgency to make efforts to protect the natural environments in the tourist destinations.
The importance of tourism as a catalyst for sustainable development is an important economic requirement to stimulate investment in natural, environmental and cultural tourism. Awareness of the importance of tourism development and management is one of the objectives of the World Tourism Organization.
The principles of management emphasize the economic, cultural, social and environmental aspects of the tourism sector as an important source of increased income as a key pillar in the country's sustainable development.
Therefore, for the continuation of tourism as an important source of income, the following paragraphs should be adhered to:
• Improve the quality of life of the host community.
• Protection of tourist, natural and environmental centers within the country.
• Respect the cultural heritage of society, preserve values, traditions and customs, and contribute to understanding cultural relations and tolerance.
• Emphasize the long-term tourism plans while providing economic benefits and distributing them fairly to the contributors, including providing job opportunities to improve the individual's income and fight poverty.
• The development of tourism as a permanent source of income requires the consolidation of tourism concepts and awareness in the government and society.
• Ensuring the development of the tourism sector is a continuous process and needs to be supervised and managed by qualified cadres specialized in tourism.
• Provide high quality information and experience of tourism in a manner suitable for tourists and visitors.
• The term of tourism development expresses the various programs and plans that aim to achieve the continuous and balanced increase in tourism resources and to deepen and rationalize productivity in the tourism sector. It is a complex and complex process that includes several interrelated elements and interrelated with each other based on scientific and practical attempt to reach the optimum exploitation of the production elements And linking it to the elements of the environment and development of human resources to play its role in development programs.
• Means development and additions and beautification of areas or cities that are suitable for tourism development by providing them with basic public facilities and housing facilities, service and recreation in addition to the engineering work associated with the coordination of the site while maintaining the environment and the establishment of nature reserves and land and marine and provide continuous control of natural and tourist elements, And their impact on the environment.
• Tourism development is intended to develop the components of the tourism product, especially in the framework of civilization and natural or in other words the development of natural and cultural tourism resources within the total resources available tourism of the state.
• Geography can play an important role in tourism development, as the study of the optimal location of any tourism project and its selection must be taken into account because it gives the greatest return at the lowest costs.
• Tourism development is an urgent necessity because it helps to create more opportunities for employment, and thus works to raise the standard of living and be certain to reach the aspirations of the community of progress and paper.
• Tourism development in any country with tourism potential that offers significant opportunities to increase national income and improve its balance of payments and current account of its foreign exchange wealth.
• Formulation of the main objective of a policy of environmentally conscious tourism.
• Ensure the optimal integration of tourism needs of all tourists of different levels within the framework of effective regulations and in a healthy environment taking into account the interests of the local population.
• Tourism development is the path of the future and is one of the stages of achieving a greater goal of achieving sustainable economic development.
Towards a new concept of tourism development
This new concept is based on a number of pillars:
• Proper scientific planning.
• Optimal exploitation of natural and human resources.
• Respect the environment and protect natural resources from havoc and pollution.
• The completion of each tourism project a set of environmental conditions - to be environmentally friendly tourism development - including:
Each tourism project identifies and evaluates environmental impact (positive or negative).
Develop assets and solutions for how to promote and protect the environment.
Develop environment-friendly designs that reflect their originality.
• Benefiting from economies of scale. This is done by grouping the projects belonging to each new tourism center or complex within the framework of a company in which the project owners participate in the center or the complex so that the company is responsible for:
Implementation of all the main tourist projects of the center and its associated facilities.
The Center administers and maintains its projects in a comprehensive manner.
Providing employment and training for all the center's projects.
External marketing of the center as a whole, as well as the marketing of tourism services.
• The economic and social objectives of tourism development are achieved through:
Creating new urban centers.
Increase the area of urbanization.
Provide good employment opportunities and eliminate unemployment.
Not to allow non-serious investors to trade in the lands of tourist areas.
Provide the required balance between the size of tourism and hotel housing to stimulate tourism and internal tourism together with foreign tourism.
The center or the tourist complex
Is a full range of activities:
• In addition to the housing area of workers and the service area in a functional integrated pool.
The tourism center is based on the concept of continuous sustainable development and conservation of natural resources attracting tourism and diversifying tourist attractions to achieve the best use of the integrated tourism show.
One of the most important axes of development to achieve tourism development is:
• Improving the quality of tourism services as a standard of excellence in today's and future world.
• The cooperation between all state institutions to develop and improve tourism activity. The tourism sector has a direct (and indirect) relationship with all state institutions. Therefore, it is necessary to study the impact of the various state institutions on the tourism sector. Supervision and supervision.
• Work to raise the efficiency of the human element through:
Education: The areas of study must be defined first to achieve the objectives of the educational process in schools and tourism institutes and hotels, and the state must provide support to scientific institutions specialized in tourism and hotel and the development of its programs and benefit from the advanced international study programs.
Training: The objectives of the current and future tourism and hotel training should be determined on the basis of the actual needs of the entire tourism sector, with the provision of suitable cadres to work in the tourism sector in a way that increases the performance of tourism services to meet the diversity of tourism demand.
To raise the awareness of the community in the field of tourism in order to create an upscale tourist industry.
Take advantage of the enormous potential of the Internet to increase the growth rate of tourism and hotel investment.
Obstacles to tourism development
Tourism development faces a number of obstacles that delay and reduce its role in the areas of economic and social development. The most important of these obstacles are:
1- The obstacles related to tourism planning:
In the absence of a good information system and tourism statistics, the availability of information and data on tourist attractions or activities is one of the planning pillars. The statistical system in some countries, especially the Arab ones, is characterized by a lack of coverage and is limited to some figures on the classification of tourists by nationality, the number of tourists distributed on the months of the year and the number of tourist nights. The downside of this system lies in the absence of much important information needed for researchers or planning in the field of tourism such as:
Distribution of tourists according to the method of arrival to the country (by land, sea or air).
Purpose of arrival.
Tourist accommodation (cities - resorts - hotels - tourist villages - youth hostels - apartments and furnished rooms).
Places visited by tourists.
Classification of tourists by age, sex and country of arrival.
Classification of tourists on fast or transit trips by nationality and duration.
The availability of these data and information enables the planners to focus their efforts on expanding the establishment of hotels of a certain category and improving the performance of services on the one hand, and the development of the services attached and attached thereto. As well as the development and development of existing tourism resources and components. The knowledge of the number of tourists distributed according to the method of arrival helps to develop or support the necessary transport and transportation methods from the country to the outside or from outside the country to the tourist places within the country.
In addition, the lack of comprehensive and comprehensive tourist guides, pamphlets and tourist maps contain existing tourist attractions, conflicts and divergences between the Ministry of Tourism and other related institutions and ministries, the low awareness of the importance and value of cultural heritage as in some third world countries, Domestic and foreign funds needed for tourism investment are considered to be the main negative factors affecting tourism planning.
Misdirection of investments in the tourism sector:
It may be noticed in many tourist countries that some of the national and foreign tourism investment companies focus their investments in narrow areas may not need a tourist or wish to like clubs and nightlife stores.
3. Ineffective tourism marketing:
Tourism marketing plays an important role in selling the tourism product. Marketing tourism through advertising is necessary for a product that depends on the satisfaction and enjoyment that the consumer expects from the purchase process. Successful tourism marketing is what inspires the consumer's desire and generates the satisfaction that the advertised tourist product is the best. Which is available in the international tourism market and fulfills its requirements.
The country may have many important tourism resources as it is in Iraq, Egypt, Yemen, Syria and Libya, but it suffers from the problem of failure to market its resources and its components internally and externally. In other words, the minimum efforts and marketing activities necessary to activate tourism movement are not yet available in such countries, in Iraq.
The continued rise in the prices of goods and services is one of the economic factors affecting tourism demand in a country. The Arab countries are among the countries that suffer from the continuous rise in the rate of annual inflation, due to several reasons, the most important of which is low productivity and low supply compared to the size of demand.
5. Low level of tourism assistance services:
Despite the relative improvement of the means of communication and the means of internal and external telecommunications in many countries of the world, the countries concerned with tourism in the third world are still suffering from poor communication services as well as other problems related to sewage projects and networks of drinking water net electricity and lighting and transport links between Sites and various tourist attractions.
6. Political stability and social security:
Although tourism experts and the economy recognized the need for tourist countries to enjoy a high degree of security and political stability, many countries in the third world still suffer from lack of security and political stability due to weak law and the deterioration of the economy and the spread of unemployment and the spread of crime and terrorism and corruption.
7. Other problems and obstacles
There are also other problems involving most tourist countries in developing countries, the most important of which are:
Lack of interest in the cleanliness of tourist places, especially archaeological and religious ones.
Lack of tourism police in some tourist areas, especially archaeological and historical.
The failure of banking tourism services in banks, especially in hotels.
Maltreatment at the offices of tourism and aviation companies at home and abroad.
Exploitation of taxi drivers to tourist groups of foreigners in general, which harms the reputation of tourist countries.
Lack of attention to the general appearance and uniforms of the workers in the tourism sector with the requirements of work.
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