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Parliamentary integrity intends to resolve 13 thousand files of corruption has been disabled since 2003

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Parliamentary integrity intends to resolve 13 thousand files of corruption has been disabled since 2003

Post  claud39 on Sun Dec 30, 2018 9:49 am

https://www.almaalomah.com/2018/12/30/378113/


Parliamentary integrity intends to resolve 13 thousand files of corruption has been disabled since 2003


 30/12/2018










Information / Baghdad ..



A member of the Integrity Committee Sabah al-Ukaili, Sunday, the existence of 13 thousand files of corruption has not been resolved since 2003 until now, noting that the priorities of our work during the next phase to open all these files without fear or political courtesy.
"There are 13 thousand files have been disabled since 2003 and it is time to re-open and follow up with the executive bodies and the disclosure of entities and figures convicted of corruption issues, whatever their party affiliation."
He added that "the priorities of our work during the next phase to open all these files without fear or political courtesy at the expense of the theft of our people," pointing to "the existence of problems and pressures facing our work in the Committee."
The head of the Supreme Judicial Council, Judge Faik Zidane, issued a number of directives last week to contribute to the rapid completion of anti-corruption issues. Ending / 25 h

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The right of citizens to uncover the corruption of government sectors

Post  claud39 on Sun Dec 30, 2018 9:58 am

https://www.mustaqila.com/%D8%AD%D9%82-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D9%88%D8%A7%D8%B7%D9%86%D9%8A%D9%86-%D9%81%D9%8A-%D9%83%D8%B4%D9%81-%D9%85%D9%88%D8%A7%D8%B7%D9%86-%D9%81%D8%B3%D8%A7%D8%AF-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%82%D8%B7%D8%A7%D8%B9%D8%A7/


The right of citizens to uncover the corruption of government sectors




30/12/2018





Lovely return
Adam Center for the Defense of Rights and Freedoms
There is no dispute that corruption is a widespread phenomenon in all countries and societies. It is also known that corruption is not confined to a particular sector. Corruption can be found in the public sector as well as in the private sector or the private sector. In the public sector more than others, because of the large size of the public sector, and the large number of employees working in it. Corruption is often shared by people from the public sector. And persons from the private sector.
The World Bank defined corruption as "paying bribes or direct commissions to employees and officials in the government, and in the public and private sectors to facilitate transactions (corruption may be defined as the conduct of an office holder or a public office or the like, According to his job position in which he is elected or means a person and has the power to decide in the management of public affairs to achieve a special interest at the expense of the public interest. The private interest is not limited to the self-interest of the person himself but extends to the benefit of his or her own university Religion, color, sex or affiliation Or regional).
The administrative and financial corruption is a disease in the body of society and it hinders development efforts and restricts investment from the economic side, and also affects the political side, which weakens democracy and the circulation of power in the absence of transparency, how many countries failed to achieve economic and social growth by the spread of corruption in the wheels of power, despite the availability Growth factors, such as natural resources, and also harm institutions and enterprises that play a key role in the development of various economic sectors due to the absence of fair competition, absolute transparency in transactions and inequality.
Corruption can be divided into two types: small corruption and big corruption, and is not classified between large corruption and small corruption depending on the size of money or interest that is included, but is based on the content and the party that is doing. Small corruption: bribery is usually done in order to provide legitimate and prescribed regular service, small bribes paid by small staff and some government officials with limited salaries as a result of licensing facilities. The definition of small corruption also includes access to sites for children and relatives in the career system and in the business sector. Without the need for such functions, or without competition as required by law.
Big corruption: It is done by senior officials responsible for granting licenses, privileges or permissions or persons involved in public procurement and procurement, usually hold influential positions or ministers or heads of state or surrounding them, usually have an impact on the allocation of public funds for private use, Misappropriation of funds and receipt of bribes to grant concessions and public tenders to a specific party. Big corruption is associated with the ability to influence decision-making, such as the decisions to establish economic projects and the establishment of tenders and bids.
Through international experience in this area, standards and characteristics can be identified, often accompanied by large corruption. So the size of the deal is so big that these big guys are tempted by the ministers, ministers, and heads of state, as well as the speed of getting a return. It is also remarkable that in the case of large corruption there is an intermediary or agent, where the bribe provider, the senior government official is not directly dealt with, but the use of intermediary, so the use of intermediary or agent in corruption is one of the most factors that feed the world's largest corruption machine.
It should be said that this division of corruption between small and large does not mean that one of them is more dangerous or important than the other, or that it can be accepted or overlooked, each of them, even if it can lead to a total collapse in the foundations of the state and its structural foundations. Small corruption, such as moderation and nepotism, may spread to a degree that can not be controlled. It may be hidden or unknown, because it is not directly apparent, but spreads like infectious disease, leading to lethal effects by manipulating and disabling legitimate rules. According to them.
The great corruption is capable of eliminating the entire society because it affects all the capabilities of the society that are placed in the hands of those who control the corruption of personal interests that lead to the impoverishment of the society, the disruption of its abilities and its return to decay and delay. The standard of public opinion may also be one of the criteria for distinguishing between small corruption and big corruption. The case is one of the major corruption cases when it is the focus of public opinion, regardless of whether the perpetrator is a senior employee or a small employee, .
There are many forms and images that show corruption in the life of societies, and can not be limited to these manifestations fully and accurately, as they vary depending on the body that is exercised or the interest that is sought to achieve. Corruption may be practiced by an individual, practiced by a group, a private institution, an official or a civil institution and may be aimed at material gain or political or social gain. Individual corruption may be practiced individually and without coordination with other individuals or entities. It may be practiced by a group in a systematic and coordinated manner, which is the most dangerous type of corruption; it permeates the whole structure of society politically, economically and socially. In general, a set of images and forms of corruption can be identified. These include: nepotism, nepotism, moderation, job exploitation, waste or misappropriation of public money, bribery, money laundering and conflict of interest.
There are a variety of reasons for the rise and spread of corruption in societies, although there is a consensus that this phenomenon is a human behavior, motivated by self-interest, when there is an enabling environment, which is exploited by these people. A set of general causes can be summed up as the overall corruption environment:
1. Absence of the rule of law. In the absence of the rule of law, rights and freedoms are violated unchecked, freedom of opinion, expression and organization are confiscated, the role of the press and the media is blocked, the parties and unions are marginalized and all institutions of society are weakened. In the absence of the rule of law, the balance between the third powers is also undermined: legislative, executive and judicial, and economic and social corruption is rampant, thereby destroying all the pillars of political development.
2. The weakness of the judicial system, its inability to implement the judgments it issues, and control over the administrative decisions issued by the executive branch, and the lack of independence of the judiciary opens the way to corrupt them.
3 - weak will and sincere intention of the political leadership to combat corruption, and not to take strict measures, preventive or therapeutic punishment against the elements of corruption, because of the indulgence of this leadership itself or some of its parties in corruption, and therefore does not apply the sanctions system to all and impunity from those who have mediation Or favoritism or influence.
4. The weakness of the state's oversight bodies and their lack of independence, and consequently the weakness of accountability mechanisms and their systems in different sectors of society.
5- Weakness of the role of civil society institutions, institutions specialized in fighting corruption, or working to raise awareness about the importance of combating it, including the weakness of private civil institutions such as charities and professional organizations and research institutions specialized in participating in monitoring the government's work in particular and public works in general.
6. Increasing opportunities for corruption in countries in transition, where they are experiencing special conditions, whether political, such as the transition from occupation to statehood or economic conditions such as the transition from one economic system to another or social conditions that are affected by circumstances Political situation. This can be aided by the modernity of national institutions and laws or their lack of completeness, thus providing a suitable environment for corrupts and increasing opportunities for corruption, combined with the weakness of the supervisory body in supervising the work of staff in these transitional stages.
However, in order for countries to eliminate corruption in its forms, addresses and multiple demonstrations, they need to activate the following mechanisms:
 
Transparency: Most Arabic language dictionaries interpret the word transparency with clarity, openness, integrity and non-fraud. For employees and organizations, transparency means allowing others to know the truth without trying to hide or shade the meaning or change the reality to better show things. To all members of society and the growing global faith in the citizen's right to know.
Accountability: Accountability is the extent to which an individual is responsible for the actions and subsequent tasks required by that responsibility for the terms and conditions that have already been agreed upon. Or that accountability is the answer of individuals or institutions to questions posed to them because of undesirable behavior, inconsistent with and incompatible with regulations and standards, as well as the responsibility and consequences of their behavior for those individuals and institutions. Accountability may be legal accountability, financial accountability, moral accountability, or political accountability. When properly applied, accountability works to rid the institution of the dimensions of patronage and push it towards integrity and action in accordance with the rules of merit and equal opportunity.
Accounting: Accounting is a mechanism that usually comes after transparency and accountability. Accounting means that people holding public office are accountable for their work as a result of scrutiny and accountability by their officials in senior positions such as ministers and those in rank. Accounting is in three aspects: The conformity of the actions of individuals with the provisions of the law in the work they do, if it is proved that there is a violation of the law resulted in criminal damage, and are held in accordance with the law provided by the judicial authorities. And administrative follow-up: The exposure of individuals working in the governmental institution for examination and follow-up the hierarchy of the institution and the continuous evaluation by the higher members of them degree in the institution or the ministry, and follow-up moral: The comparison of the work performed by the person with the moral values ​​that must be adhered to,

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