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 Iraqi Economy: Crises and Development

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RamblerNash
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PostSubject: Iraqi Economy: Crises and Development   Sun Sep 16, 2018 12:04 pm

Iraqi Economy: Crises and Development



Walid Khadouri
 
09/16/2018

Walid Khadouri
The book, "The Iraqi Economy: Crises and Development", published in Beirut in July, is a basic reference to the Iraqi economy. The book is written by Dr. Mohammed Hassan Salman and Dr. Khairuddin Hassib, published In the early second half of the 20th century .

These books are the main references to the Iraqi economic development, in addition to dozens of books and specialized sources that accompany the Arab library in the studies on the Arab state economically promised, but faltered and deteriorated due to wars, improvised policies, mismanagement and corruption .

What distinguishes basic references is that they have addressed the transformation of the Iraqi economy from dependence on agriculture and trade to the oil rent economy. He explained at the outset the series of political, social and geopolitical crises that have left negative effects on the Iraqi economy, despite the natural and human resources available to him. The strategic location of Basra, which is witnessing a volatile protest movement, which is considered the economic capital of Iraq as the port of the country on the Shatt al-Arab and the history of trade with neighboring countries and regional extended from the Gulf countries to India and Europe. Basra airport has been a transit point for many international airlines back and forth from east to west. Basra also has families that bear witness to its commercial history and its successful and extensive performance inside and outside Iraq. Some of these families ran a commercial maritime fleet, others began exporting packaged and canned dates, some of them specializing in grain and livestock trade. The reference to Basra today is necessary in the light of the protest movements and paralysis, and the scarcity of drinking water and the continuous interruption of electricity. Water scarcity is not only due to lack of availability, especially as the Shatt al-Arab traverses the shores of the city, and the problem lies not only in the dams built by Turkey, these projects are not new. Iran's closure of dozens of rivers and tributaries over the past months has been announced in advance. The problem is that a new water-purification plant has not been completed in a timely manner, and the random employment policy adopted by the system since 2003, which resulted in the appointment of unqualified party workers without adequate experience and education, Iran's closure of dozens of rivers and tributaries over the past months has been announced in advance. The problem is that a new water-purification plant has not been completed in a timely manner, and the random employment policy adopted by the system since 2003, which resulted in the appointment of unqualified party workers without adequate experience and education, Iran's closure of dozens of rivers and tributaries over the past months has been announced in advance. The problem is that a new water-purification plant has not been completed in a timely manner, and the random employment policy adopted by the system since 2003, which resulted in the appointment of unqualified party workers without adequate experience and education,.

It is difficult to address the crises of the modern Iraqi economy without entering the social challenges, ie the reasons for the migration of commercial families and the displacement of specialized minorities in business. It is not possible to point fingers only at the role of the "oil trap", although this is an important factor in the crisis. Neighboring countries managed to coexist with oil revenues while maintaining free trade and economic planning .

Mirza highlighted two problems, the first is the large rise in the high population, which is about 3 percent annually, unemployment, and the second scarcity of water. But it was necessary to delve deeper into two other important challenges. The first was Iraq's loss of commercial houses and major farmers, which began since the political transformations during and after the 1958 revolution. The second challenge is the unprecedented spread of corruption from the top of power to the bottom after the 2003 invasion .

"After the collapse of oil prices in 2014-2015, it became clear that employment in the government apparatus has reached its limit, and the signs of the implementation of the IMF program have begun," he said. International end of 2016, which stipulated a higher limit for government employment ».

It is expected that the number of entrants to the labor market will increase by about 482 thousand people annually, and the dilemma of governments after 2013 in adopting a policy of employment party random require the benefit of parties and supporters, despite their lack of experience or knowledge of science and management, and the assumption of high prices of oil cover their erroneous, All these bets proved to fail when prices collapsed .

The oil and economic expert, Mirza, was keen to explain the Iraqi oil policies and the international variables, namely the policies of the Organization of OPEC, affecting it, and the stage of oil concessions and national administration. The chapter on the «oil scene after the change of 2003» is a basic reference, supported by analyzes and details of this period, which was filled with the concern about what the oil contracts of the central government and the Kurdistan region, and relations and differences of oil between the center and the region, which almost led to the division of the country .

Mirza provided an analysis of the disparities in Baghdad's relationship with the provinces under the federal system and the rules of sharing oil rents. He addressed suggestions and criticisms about the policy of direct distribution of oil revenues to Iraqi citizens. This issue is still controversial, as some of its supporters claim that it will weaken the influence of dictatorial rule, as if dictatorships are only with oil revenues. Opponents contend that the project is impractical and will impede economic development, let alone the difficulty of implementing it in the absence of a social contract and widespread corruption .

Mirza's analysis of the various aspects of this debate, namely its positive and negative aspects, was a reference in the discussions on the oil revenue distribution project and the importance of success or failure of its implementation in other oil countries. The explanation of oil policy after 2003, provides a precise and professional view in light of the confusion that accompanied it, especially the financial returns resulting from it and the responsibility towards companies .

http://economy-news.net/content.php?id=13669
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